Beh, è passato un bel po’ di tempo…

…dall’ultima volta che ho parlato di SEO in Italiano. Ed eccola qua, l’occasione:

Il mio speech al Web Marketing Festival 2020, col solito titolo rilassato e per niente borioso

Programma della sala seo al Web Marketing Festival 2020.

Sabato 21 Novembre parlerò al Web Marketing Festival, e sarà più che un appuntamento di lavoro per me. Da un lato, conosco personalmente alcuni dei ragazzi che organizzano questo (e altri) eventi in tutta Italia, da anni: Cosmano, Angelo, Vito, Giorgio, e gentaglia del genere. Ma principalmente, ciò che genera emozione è il pensiero che è proprio qui che, anni fa (2012, tipo), appena tornato in Italia, giovane (…’somma) SEO pieno di speranze, cominciavo a frequentare il mondo dei convegni di settore, conoscendo esperti e amici, e imparando a parlare di quello che mi piace fare davanti ad altri. Ho visto JoMu himself, Fiorelli, Quadrella, il rapper, Monari, un sacco di gente interessantissima e da cui ho appreso un sacco.

Nel corso degli anni, ho seguito 3 o 4 eventi GT tra Rimini, Milano, e Roma. Che bello, adesso, pensare che magari qualcuno sentirà me e penserà “ah beh, se è così allora magari ce la posso fare anch’io!”.

Insomma, sono felicissimo di partecipare, e condividerò il mio pensiero a proposito del collegamento tra Post-strutturalismo e gerarchia dei siti web, passando per IA e funzionamento del cervello umano. Spero di riuscire a farlo al meglio, in una lingua diversa dall’inglese (ormai mi sono abituato, che ci posso fare). Ad ogni modo, sono sicuro che ci metterò tutto quello che ho.

Non ho ancora un orario definitivo, ma vedremo. A presto! <3

How to use Aristotle’s four causes to write a kickass product description

Edit: the draft of this article served as basis for my speech at SEOday 2020. In that event I expand this idea further, you can find the video here. It’s the second time I talk about Aristotle on the blog, even though previously it was about my Post-aristotelian view of a site’s structure. Enjoy!

In marketing, we often talk about quality right? Obtain high-quality backlinks, choose a good technology for your website, write great content.

I often think about quality: it’s an unidentifiable characteristic that belongs to something: most of the times we all can recognise it; seldom can we explain what it is.

This is a problem with ancient roots, humans have been thinking about it for millennia. What is good? What is bad? So what I want to do today is try to take some thoughts that some guy had over two thousand years ago, and imagine what he’d do in a modern situation:

this is Aristotle writing a product page.

Who’s the man?

I don’t want to detail too much who Aristotle was: 1) he’s done way too many different things and 2) I am not nearly as knowledgeable enough on the subject. I’ll just wrap it up in one single line: Aristotle was a philosopher who lived in Greece in the fourth century BC, and is one of the most influential thinkers of all times. He developed an interest in several topics, and went as far as pretty much single-handedly inventing entire fields of study. Quoting Wikipedia “His writings cover many subjects including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics, and government”. Not too bad.

Aristotle and his buddy Plato out for a beer in Athens, coloured

Just to put it in perspective real quick: he created entire fields of study.

Among these, our guy had some strong opinions on metaphysics, that is the study of ” being as such”. What is to be? What is the cause of being? And such menial questions. Again, for perspective: the term metaphysics itself was created, centuries later, by people studying our Big Boy.

He maintained that every existing thing has got four causes: Material, Formal, Efficient, and Final. Might it make sense to apply these to a product description? Let’s Try!

The four causes

Let’s start with a brief description of the four causes:

Material cause: the answer to the question ‘what is it made of?’ What’s the material(-s). This is quite straightforward, and is often (not always, tho 🤷‍♂️) a concept that’s present on most descriptions of objects and services. A shoe’s made of rubber, leather, cotton; a concert is made of the bands it’s featuring.

Formal cause: the shape, inner abilities and character, place in the universe. This is the (in-)famous idea that there’s a shoeness to a shoe, a catness to a cat, a humanness to a human, that make it so that we all recognise them for what they are. If this was the only cause, I argue that Magritte’s “La Trahison des images” would really, in fact, be a pipe.

La Trahison des images – René Magritte, 1929

Efficient cause: this is something that must exist in time and create the item we are talking about. I won’t dwell in the prime mover idea because this is not what I’m looking at in this writing, and it’s 7am and my moca espresso still needs to kick in. But anyway, it’s the creator: the brand of a given thing, the parents and the reproductive system of mammals and their gene pool for a person, stuff like that. The whole idea of brand/branding is huge in marketing, and the establishment of a successful brand is a little bit of a Holy Grail. Indeed, it is my (debatable) idea that the number one ranking factor for SEO is brand. Change my mind.

Hidden meaning of 11 world's most famous logos - Nike | The Economic Times

No need to even write it here is there

Final cause: this is a very interesting concept, hugely influential among philosophers but fascinating also for normal people 😜

My man Big A called it Telos, that is the purpose of a thing, the destination and destiny it aims towards. The reason to fulfill which one exists. So what does this thing do? Look at how beautifully Apple talks about their products on their website: it’s not a phone to call. It’s not a computer to compute. It changes reality. It gives you power. It transforms your dreams in reality. The purpose of a sneaker is not to cover your foot: it’s to look the coolest! A ticket is not a piece of paper: it’s a dream come true!

From the talker’s perspective, to the listener’s

So these four ideas, according to Killer A, are necessarily attributable to every piece of reality. How is this important though? Well, the point is that it is not only the only complete way to describe a thing, but it will also necessarily include each and every way a person (ie the audience) will search for any given idea, online or off-.

If you sell shoes, your audience will use one of these four types of modifier to describe what they need. In their mind, one of these four patterns will naturally occur when thinking of the shoe they want. Hence, when we are describing our fabulous shoes, using these four will consider all possible combinations of [shoes + whatever idea]. It’s the long-tail baby. No one searches for “shoes’: we all search for [shoes + whatever idea].

Soundtrack: A day at the beach by Airbag

An international website: 10% inspiration, 89% perspiration, 1% hreflang

I have seen sites with several dozens of hreflang tags per page: hreflang for San Marino and for Jersey (I’m not even kidding), for English speakers in France and Indians in China. All the most bizarre combinations you can imagine, all derived from the same misconception: that talking to the whole world is as easy as implementing a tag. Well, unfortunately it’s not.

With this I don’t want to downplay the importance of getting your tech basics right, and yes I’m aware that the big G recommends implementing hreflang no matter what. BTW, there’s a comprehensive article on Tech International SEO by my man Ben Howe here.

How different is a different culture

It is easy to underestimate the difference between two peoples.

I am an Italian who lives and works in the UK-two cultures that, after all, share thousands of years of close relationships, and whose languages are partly similar. I am lucky enough to have worked for many international top-level brands in both countries, and I specialise in sorting their approach to International SEO.

Now that I live in the UK I am painfully aware that, in spite of my frankly excellent language skills, before living here I did not have a grasp on the culture that I could consider good enough to be able to autonomously fully manage a site. Of course, I was ever careful to err on the side of caution and involve a local specialist or team for all the countries I was targeting, from South Korea to Venezuela, thanks to the great people with which I try to surround myself. Nevertheless, I thought I knew more than I actually did about Britannia, as is the case more often than not (Dunning–Kruger effect anyone?).

It is not only a matter of being familiar with the audience: the industry one operates in is different, with different experts and tools and strong players; and the overall online environment is different, with other search engines and apps and social and a whole different approach to browsing in general.

I will go through some of these differences, providing direct experience of how, even if you are a multibillion worldwide company, it is extremely easy to screw up the internationalisation of your online presence.

I like to split this topic into three main fields, to consider when accounting for the differences between your country, and another: industry, audience, and environment. I will begin by analysing these, and will thereafter offer a few tips on how to tackle your landing on a foreign market.


Whatever industry you are in, and no matter how well you know it in your country, your target foreign market will be uncharted territory. You will need a local guide, at the very least to set up the whole project initially. In the best case scenario, you’ll have ongoing collaboration with local agencies, as well as a local branch to account for all brand and product decisions.

In Italy, all telco providers (Vodafone, TalkTalk, etc.) are way cheaper than in the UK. When Iliad opened their lines in Italy in 2018, the adv campaign was huge, they worked very well on online buzz and, of course, on their price. In order to keep them from owning the market, the three pre-existing players (Vodafone, TIM, Wind Tre) were forced to either sensibly decrease their prices, or even launch entirely new products whose objective was to be perceived as low-priced by the general public. Iliad had studied the market, and managed to cause great disruption to the three monoliths that were sharing the pie until then: one can only imagine the budget in terms of money (Wikipedia mentions €1 billion), competences, and time that such an operation entails, absolutely massive. It was the only way to do it.

I worked with some amazing teams with telcos in both Italy and UK, and the absolutely gigantic dimensions of these companies made it quite hard for me as a third party, but even more for their internal team, to really be able to change things swiftly: among other things, this was due to the heart of the company being several layers away from the digital marketing team, and in one case in another country altogether. In this case, it was simply impossible to drive any sort of change on the site. Eventually the company centralised all of their marketing efforts to their central office, making it even harder: there was, then, a UK-based marketing team with a UK-based agency, trying to optimise for Italy without any local agencies or consultants: not the greatest idea.

I guess what is the greatest idea for multi billion worldwide companies, is to have local staff and local agencies.

I will also mention the SEO agencies world, so as to be able to name people 🙂

In Italy, one of my previous workplaces Webranking is among the 3 top-of-mind in the country when it comes to SEO. Here in the UK, they are utterly unknown, or even worse mistaken for these (great) guys.

My current CEO at Blue Array, Simon Schnieders, is quite the authority in the SEO industry here in the UK, but not so much in Italy. The agency itself, instead, is quite present in the Bella Vita SEO buzz, but unknown to business owners. Maybe, purely from a business perspective, vice versa would be better.


I have this theory for which the single most important ranking factor that really matters is branding. You build your brand, you build your ranking. From an audience perspective, don’t you tend to click on a result from a site whose name you already know? Well, now consider all the subconscious influence a brand has, on top of that of which you are aware.

Most of a site’s organic traffic gets there via brand queries. Dolce & Gabbana is of course an institution in Italy: we know who they are, how they talk, and they are frankly too Italian to scandalise us. But they are just a brand among many others in China, so when they said something about that country that was OK for them, but was heavily offensive for Chinese people, they paid severe repercussions. As in, losing millions and millions in revenues.

We have been working for years with one of the largest online photo printing providers in the UK. Probably the largest, and pretty well known in other countries too! But in Italy, well…in Italy we do not use cards (to this day, Cards Galore is an incomprehensible mystery to me). We do not print our little kids’ faces on mugs and give them to their grandparents for Christmas.

All in all, the culture you are talking to is a filter through which you are evaluated, and it’s something you should consider. Europeans prefer a black/white website, whereas colours are more appreciated in Asia. Chinese people might find a red background intriguing, whereas for us Italians it’s a colour that triggers negative feelings. Same goes with any flashy colour really.

What I mean is, psychology is an important part of what people do online, as most decisions are made irrationally; the process of optimisation of the website should consider this.

Online environment

Even in a country in which a brand knows their audience, and supposing they have a good understanding of the industry and all the players they are going to deal with, the online environment itself, in which they’ll dwell, will be alien.

I am often asked how to approach traffic generation in China: a lot of people know that Google is not present on the Search Market there (yet), so how does Baidu’s Search Engine work? The question is correct, but partial. It is important to understand, for instance, that the portion of paid real estate for branded queries on Baidu is much bigger than on G. It’s not only a matter of quantity, but also of quality of the information available in the above-the-fold portion of the results page. And how about Wechat? Wechat is not a mere correspondent of our Whatsapp: the Chinese use it for a lot of purposes, among which a strong part of their relationship with a brand. So when you want to land in China, you do not have the option to neglect Social Media. You want social media. You can live without a Twitter channel in Europe, but you want Wechat in China.

How much are apps used by the average person? Do they actually buy online, or is browsing more of a step of a complex off-/online multichannel path, as is normally the case (making things incredibly hard)? What is the natural channel in the moment of information acquisition for most people?

How to hit a foreign market with a hammer

So how do you actively tackle all this? The stakes are high, and so are the price to be paid and the time it will take: no hard questions can ever be answered with easy answers.

Business solutions: go big or go home

First of all, SEO is like an extremely important part of a complex mechanism: let’s say the driving wheel of a car. It’s good to have a perfect, functional driving wheel. Actually, it’s absolutely imperative.

But you won’t go far at all without the rest of the car.

What I mean is that the effort should be a well-organised concerto where all parts work simultaneously: development might be global, but content should definitely be local; organic and paid traffic should be local from a strategic point of view, and the copywriting process should most definitely involve local actors. It is important to notice that having a native in your back office write all texts for you is not a sufficient solution: most Italians do not know how to write in our language, have no idea of the concept of Tone of Voice, and more often than not will incur in first-grade grammatical errors. Bad ones.

As a consultant, it is part of my job to point out when I believe my client is wrong. Upon the proposal of any new web project I always ask, are you doing it just to try your luck, or do you really want to do it? Do you have the budget to back it up? The patience? The time? How about the stakeholders? If you don’t, then you should not even try, because uncertainty will lead to failure.

Do, or do not: there is no try.

SEO Solutions

From the standpoint of organic traffic, two are the things you’ll need, generally speaking: localisation, which is what we might call all that bunch of stuff I just spoke about; and technical accessibility. That is making it easy and fast for the user and the crawler alike to find, access, understand, and index your information. On the site itself, this is done via a solid foundation that can follow what you do on your own local version of the website. Besides using a CDN, all other on-page technical specifications should already be on your site (if you are not optimising your site in your own country, you most definitely should not do it elsewhere). Use all of the recommendations from the article I linked above. I also talk about it in a module of the Blue Array Academy, and there’s no way I can convey all that information in a few lines here. Also, keep in mind that not all search engines are as smart as the big G: if your site is accessible for G, it might not be for Baidu. In fact, it probably won’t. But after reading all this, you are going to have a specific, localised site for China right? Right!?

My whole point is, do remember that there’s a lot of things to do when localising a website, and you should not believe, nor as a consultant lead your clients to believe, that implementing a hreflang tag will make your brand international.

Blue Array Academy SEO Course

In the past few months I’ve been lucky enough as to be part of an incredibly interesting project. The Blue Array Academy is an online video course that covers pretty much all there is to know about Search Engine Optimisation, from the basics to more advanced stuff.

I am probably the one who’s had the best return with the least investment, if compared with my Blue Array colleagues: some of them dedicated A LOT of effort into this project, much more than yrstrly, and all I can do is praise them.

Now the project is out there, the course accessible to the public, and a lot of people are displaying with pride their certificates on social media. And rightfully so! The course is very long, thorough, and hard. Well nothing is hard if you like doing it, I suppose  🤷🙂

This is the official site:

The course is FREE for as long as we are stuck in our homes for the pandemic, sitting by the computer learning stuff. So, unless you are out driving somewhere to test your eyesight, do go ahead and try it out!

Anyway, you’ll find me in the International SEO module, with a thick-as-a-brick accent, a few jokes, and quite some good tips for web marketers working on international channels.

Oh and let me add, 1) the academy is a CPD member and 2) we are not done yet! Indeed, there’ll be plenty of new, special modules with some amazing superstar guests! Can’t wait to reveal some of them, as soon as I know more 😊